Coffee is one of the most exported Colombian products, due to its quality and flavor, which is why it is commercialized around the world.
This bean is the base for preparing the second most consumed beverage globally, after water. The origin of coffee dates back to Ethiopia, Africa, where, centuries ago, coffee beans were consumed in infusions or by chewing its leaves, and later the Middle East people were in charge of its expansion, first throughout the Arab world reaching Turkey in 1554.
In the XVII century, it arrived in Europe through the port of Venice, expanding throughout the continent until it reached America in the XVIII century. Coffee in Colombia has nearly 300 years of history since the Jesuits brought it to Colombia in the XVIII century. It is estimated that in the year 1835 the first bags produced in the eastern zone were exported from the customs office of Cúcuta.
Varieties of coffee in Colombia:
1. Common Arabica Coffee
This fruit is particularly known for its fine and delicate quality. The use of this species dates back to the first millennium in the Arabian Peninsula.
2. Bourbon Coffee
The WCR (World Coffee Research Organization) describes this variety as a tall, medium-yielding plant that has the potential to produce good quality coffee at high altitudes.
3. Caturra Coffee
The quality of the Caturra coffee is a little lower, compared to that of the Bourbon; however, it is still a very good option if its production is impeccable. Its strong point is precisely the relation between quality and price, which makes it very appetizing for local coffee growers.
The quality of this variety is considered one of the best within the Arabica species; besides being one of the most expensive in the area. This species comes from Panama and is well known for its peach and floral aromas.
As with Bourbon coffee, this is one of the most important varieties of the genetic groups of Arabica coffee. It is not so common since its production is very delicate, leaving little quality product after its selection. Its flavor is described as complex, due to the aromatic fusions that it possesses.
Part of the success in cultivation lies in the variety selected. The main qualities that a good coffee in the traditional standards should have are:
Resistant to limiting diseases such as rust.
Resistant to plagues
Low growth, which allows for more trees per area.
Easy to manage
Quick initiation of production
Gives a good quality beverage
Good root system
In order to maintain the quality of Colombian coffee, the Federation maintained a rule of only producing arabica coffee varieties in the country.